Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are designed and engineered in a modular fashion that typically consists of an extracellular target-binding domain, a hinge region, a transmembrane domain that anchors the CAR to the cell membrane, and one or more intracellular domains that transmit activation signals. Depending on the number of costimulatory domains, Engineered CARs can be classified into first (CD3ζ only), second (one costimulatory domain + CD3ζ), or third generation CARs (more than one costimulatory domain + CD3ζ).

First generation CAR-T cells contain only CD3ζ sequence, however, resulting T cell expansion and persistence is inadequate for clinical use. Second generation constructs harbor an additional co-stimulatory sequence – typically either CD28 or 4-1BB – and have shown improved efficacy and persistence in humans. Third generation CAR-T cells feature multiple co-stimulatory domains.
Schematic of CAR design by generation and the different physiological functions

Oak Biosciences’ chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) design and engineering services focus on modification of αβ-T cells with CARs. Moreover, we also have developed strategies to introduce CARs into other immune cell types, including γδ-T cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, and macrophages. Our CAR design will to be tailored to each cell type you requested.

Sources of CAR engineered immune cells. The most common source of CAR-modified cells is autologous peripheral blood. However, allogeneic sources are being used and further developed, as are cord blood cells, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs), or even cell lines in the case of CAR NK cells.
Alternative cellular sources and cell type for CAR Generation

Oak Biosciences provides the following CAR engineering Services

1. CAR Design and Optimization

2. CAR-T cell generation via viral vectors

3. CAR-T cell generation via non-viral vectors

4. T-cell receptor (TCR) engineered cells generation

5. CAR NK cell generation

For other CAR related services, please fill the form for a custom inquiry!