Antibody Isotype/ Antibody Class Switching

Antibody isotype switching, also known as immunoglobulin class switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination, is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell’s production of antibody from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 for human, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 for mouse). During this process, the variable region of the antibody heavy chain is changed, but the constant region of the heavy chain stays the same. Since the variable region does not change, class switching does not affect antigen specificity. Instead, the antibody retains affinity for the same antigens, but can interact with different effector molecules. The antibody isotype switching process involves replacing only the constant region of the antibody while maintaining the variable regions, thus maintaining antibody’s specificity. Utilizing our proprietary technology and expertise, our scientists are able to modify antibody isotypes from any species, any isotypes (parent antibody) to any targeted antibody species and antibody isotypes.

Different classes of immunoglobulins, such as IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM, or subclasses such as different isotype IgGs, possess varying levels of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) activity. Therapeutic antibody development requires selecting a specific class and subclass backbone, based on a desired ADCC and CDC activity profile. To identify optimal ADCC/CDC profiles for specific targets, it is advantageous to study the effects of antibody isotype switching, produced from the same variable region grafted to different class and subclass Fc domains.

Upon request, we will produce chimeric antibodies with different Fc domains using our proprietary cloning cassettes for all antibody classes and subclasses of the human (IgA, IgD, IgM, IgE, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) and mouse (IgA, IgD, IgM, IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3) species.

Cloning Vectors available:

Heavy ChainLight Chain
HumanIgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4Igκ, Igλ2
MouseIgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3Igκ, Igλ1, Igλ2
RabbitIgG1Igκ1, Igκ2, Igλ
RatIgG2bIgκ, Igλ

1) Antibody isotype or antibody class switched affinity purified antibodies

2) Antibody isotype or antibody class switched expression plasmids

Ordering Information

Antibody Isotype or Antibody Class Switching Services

81101Antibody Isotype or Antibody Class Switching Full Services: Vector construction and expression and purification1 ProjectContact Us
81102Antibody Isotype or Antibody Class Switching Services: vector construction only1 ProjectContact Us

Some Citations Used Oak Biosciences Antibody Isotype Switching

1. Xiao S, Shimura D, Baum R, Hernandez DM, Agvanian S, Nagaoka Y, Katsumata M, Lampe PD, Kleber AG, Hong T, Shaw RM. Auxiliary trafficking subunit GJA1-20k protects connexin-43 from degradation and limits ventricular arrhythmias. J Clin Invest. 2020 Sep 1;130(9):4858-4870. (Oak isotype switching services: Generation of chicken anti-Cx43 antibody from mouse monoclonal antibody)

2. Baltazar, L., Zamith-Miranda, D., Burnet, M.C. et al. Concentration-dependent protein loading of extracellular vesicles released by Histoplasma capsulatum after antibody treatment and its modulatory action upon macrophages. Sci Rep 8, 8065 (2018). (Oak isotype switching services: mouse monoclonal 6B7 and 7B6 antibodies isotype switching)

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Antibody Isotype/ Antibody Class Switching Services